資料出處  : https://www.littlepim.com/halloween-food-around-the-world/

Halloween food around the world
For most American families, Halloween “treats” mean one thing: candy – mounds of bite-size morsels heaped into kids’ bags in exchange for that magic phrase: “Trick or treat!” Other cultures, however, celebrate All Souls’ Day, All Saints Day or Dia de Los Muertos (Nov. 1 and 2), from which our Halloween (All Hallows Eve) is derived, with different sorts of treats. Why not expand your family’s cultural horizons this Halloween by trying some of these traditional sweet treats from around the globe?


Here are a few ideas about food from Halloween around the world – about what people eat in other countries, and recipes to go with them.

Soul cakes (England and Ireland): These sweet, round cakes were traditionally given out in England and Ireland on All Saints Day or All Souls’ Day during the Middle Ages to those who went door-to-door saying prayers for the dead in what may be the forerunner to today’s trick-or-treating. They can be made with raisins and currants and aromatic spices like allspice, nutmeg, cinnamon and ginger.

靈魂蛋糕 (英格蘭及愛爾蘭): 這些甜的圓型蛋糕在中古世紀時,於英格蘭和愛爾蘭在萬聖節以及萬靈節時,用來發給那些挨家挨戶為死者祈禱的人,據說這些人或許就是今天”不給糖就搗蛋”的先驅。這些蛋糕可以用葡萄乾、黑加侖以及像百香果的香料,還有肉豆蔻、肉桂粉和薑做成。

Fave dei morti (Italy): In Italy, All Souls’ Day may be celebrated with delicate cookies (sometimes white, brown or pink) – made with almonds and covered with sugar – called Fave dei Morti or Ossei dei Morti, whose name translates to “Beans of the Dead” or “Bones of the Dead.”

蠶豆酥: 在義大利,萬聖節可能會有美味的蛋糕 (有些時候是白色、綜色或者粉紅)-以杏仁做成並且用糖粉覆蓋,稱作蠶豆酥,翻譯作”逝者之豆”或者”逝者之骨”。

Pan de Muerto (Mexico):  This soft sweet bread is a Dia de Los Muertos (Day of the Dead) tradition in Mexico, sometimes eaten at the grave of a loved one or placed on an altar. It may be flavored with orange zest or decorated with a teardrop or bones, perhaps placed in a circle to represent the cycle of life. Some people even mold the bread into animals, angels or other evocative shapes.

亡者麵包(墨西哥): 這種甜麵包是在墨西哥死亡日的傳統,有時會放置在祭壇上或者在摯愛的墓地食用。可能會做成橘子口味或者用水滴還是骨頭裝飾,或者會排城ㄧ個圓型代表生命的循環。有些人甚至會做成動物、天使或者其他能換起回憶的形狀。

Guagua de pan (Ecuador): These “bread babies” – sweet rolls molded and decorated to look like small children or infants – are part of the Day of the Dead tradition in parts of South America. Often made of wheat and sometimes filled with sweet jelly, they may be exchanged as gifts between families and friends or used ceremonially.

瓜瓜麵包 (厄瓜多爾)-這些”麵包寶寶”是用甜麵粉滾成,並且裝飾成小孩的臉或者嬰兒,這是南美亡靈節的一部分傳統。ㄧ般會用小麥做成,用甜果醬當內餡,可做為家人朋友間的交換禮物,或者儀式上的用途。




資料來源 https://www.lovehomeswap.com/blog/places-and-spaces/35-bizarrest-christmas-traditions

We know that not everyone celebrates Christmas in the same way. Different countries have their own traditions – and some of them are truly bizarre.
Christmas comes but once a year.  We’ve gone away and handpicked the weirdest Christmas traditions from around the word.  From deep fried caterpillars to rotting birds, here are the world’s most unusual festive rituals.



  1. South Africa非洲
    This festive South African delicacy is not for the faint hearted-on Christmas Day, Locals tuck into the deep-fried caterpillars of the Emperor Moth.
    在熱鬧的非洲慶典,沒勇氣的人是優雅不來的- 在聖誕節當天,當地人會大吃油炸的帝王蛾毛毛蟲
  2. Austria奧地利
    Austrian children live in fear of Krampus-a Christmas devil who’s said to beat naughty children with branches.

       Catalonians include the figure of the Caganer in their nativity scenes- a small figure of a defecating man.
加泰隆尼亞把便便人偶- 也就是一個作勢在排便的人偶,放進耶穌誕生圖裡

Catalonians also have the Tió de Nadal, otherwise known as the “pooping log”.  Decorated with a face and blanket, on Christmas Eve the log is placed halfway into a fire and beaten with sticks.

There’s no cleaning on Christmas Eve in Norway- all brooms are safely hidden away, in case they’re stolen by witches and evil spirits.挪威的聖誕夜是不打掃的,所有的掃把都被藏的好好的,以免被女巫或者惡靈偷走。

Advertising can be incredibly powerful.  Thanks to a campaign in 1974, many Japanese families eat at KFC on Christmas Eve.

Venezuelans attend Mass in the run-up to Christmas.  However, Caracas residents have developed a strange tradition- journeying to Mass on roller skates.

Greenland has some unusual Christmas recipes.  Matak is raw whale skin, served with blubber.  Kiviak is 500 dead auk birds, stuffed into a seal skin, and left to ferment for 7 months.

Germans hide a pickle in the Christmas tree on Christmas Eve- the first child to discover it in the morning receives a small gift.

10.New Zealand紐西蘭
Rather than using the traditional conifer, New Zealanders decorate Pōhutukawa trees at Christmas.

Consoda is a traditional Christmas morning feast in Portugal.  This is a time for remembering the dead, and families lay places for the souls of their late loved ones.

German children leave a shoe outside the house on December 5th, which is then filled with sweets overnight.  Naughty children awake to find a tree branch in the shoe instead.


Ukrainians forego tinsel and baubles, instead decorating their Christmas trees with an artificial spider and web.

14.Czech Republic捷克

In the Czech Republic, unmarried women stand by a door and throw a shoe over their shoulder- if the toe is pointing towards the door when it lands, they will get married within the next year.

On Christmas Eve, Estonian families traditionally head to the sauna together.

Mari Lwyd is performed in some Welsh villages on Christmas Eve.  A villager is chosen to parade through the streets, bearing the skull of a mare on the end of a stick.

The Yule Cat is said to stalk the Icelandic hills.  Those who don’t receive new clothes before Christmas Eve are said to be devoured by this mythical beast.

Since 1966, authorities in Gävle have installed a straw Swedish Yule Goat.  However, almost every other year, vandals have succeeded in burning it down.
從1966年開始,政府當局在耶夫勒用稻草設置一座聖誕羊 (耶夫勒羊)。然而,幾乎每一年,都會被破壞者成功燒毀。

19.Another Swedish tradition involves festive rice pudding. A peeled almond is hidden in the dessert, and the person who finds it will supposedly be married within a year.

20.Great Britain大不列顛

An age-old tradition dictates that each member of the family must stir the Christmas pudding mix in a clockwise direction before it’s cooked, making a wish as they do so.

Rather than Snta Claus, Italian children await the arrival of Befana, a friendly witch who delivers sweets and toys on the fifth of January.
義大利小孩不是等聖誕老人,而是等待貝方娜- 一個會發送甜點和玩具的親切女巫,在1月5號的到來。

Ethiopians celebrate Christmas on January 7th.  People wear white clothes, and the men play ganna- a fast-paced game with sticks and wooden balls.
衣索比亞人在1月7號這天慶祝聖誕節。人們會穿著白衣服,男生會玩ganna- 一種用木棒和木球節奏快速的遊戲

In Latvia, a group of “mummers”, dressed in a variety of costumes, travel from house to house.  Each household must give them a treat in return for a blessing.

Guatemalans sweep out their houses before Christmas.  Each neighborhood will then create a large pile of dirt, before placing an effigy of the devil on top, and burning it

Every December, Cuban city Remedios plays host to the Parrandans festival.  The city divides into two halves, each building a themed sculpture from light bulbs, in preparation for Christmas Eve.

In Bavaria, a noisy Christmas tradition has taken hold.   Wearing the national costume of lederhosen, Bavarian Highlanders fire mortars into the air.

The Kallikantzaroi, a race of evil goblins, lurk underground according to Greek legend.  During the 12 days of Christmas they supposedly surface, wreaking havoc.

In Slovakia, the most senior man of the house takes a spoonful of loksa pudding and throws it at the ceiling- the more that sticks, the better.

White Christmas cards are sent to friends and family.  Red cards, however, are to be avoided- this is traditionally the color of funeral announcements.
白色聖誕卡會寄送給家人朋友。但是紅色的卡片則是禁忌- 這在傳統上是用來告知喪禮的顏色。

Canada Post recognizes the address Santa Claus, North Pole, Canada, HOHOHO.  Any letters received bearing this address are both opened and replied to.
加拿大郵政承認聖誕老公公的住址,北極-加拿大-HO HO HO。任何接獲此住址寫來的信都會被開啟並回覆。

Finnish people traditionally mark Christmas with a touching tribute to the dead.  Families light candles at the graves of their departed loved ones, making Finnish graveyards a beautiful sight.

Icelandic children leave a shoe on their bedroom windowsills during the 12 days of Christmas.  Each night, it’s filled with sweets or gifts, ready to be enjoyed in the morning.

Santa Claus traditionally leaves presents in a child’s stocking on Christmas Eve.  However, naughty children may wake up on Christmas morning to find a lump of coal in their stockings.

34.South Africa南非
South African children are told the story of Danny, a young boy who angered his grandmother by eating the cookies that had been left for Santa.  In her range she killed him, and he is said to haunt homes at Christmas

Americans have created a boozy Christmas tradition called The Running of the Santas.  Each event sees scores of people- dressed as Santa- taking part in a large bar crawl.




























December 26 was traditionally known as St. Stephen’s Day, after the first Christian martyr. It is now more commonly known as Boxing Day. This expression came about because money was collected in alms-boxes placed in churches during the festive season. This money was then distributed to the poor and needy after Christmas.
It is thought the Boxing Day was first observed in the Middle Ages. It found renewed popularity in the 19th Century when the lords and ladies of England presented gifts in boxes to their servants on December, 26 in appreciation of the work they had done over the Christmas celebrations.
If December 26 falls on a Saturday or Sunday, Boxing Day takes place on the Monday.






In the pagan times of Scandinavia, people believed that house gnomes guarded their homes against evil. Although these gnomes mostly were benevolent, they quickly could turn nasty when not properly treated, so it is told. Throughout the centuries, they were either loved or loathed. Some people even believed them to be trolls and cannibals. The perception of gnomes largely depended on whether a person was naughty, or nice.
When Christmas became popular again as a festive season in the middle-1800s, Scandinavian writers such as Thile, Toplius, Rydberg sketched the gnomes’ true role in modern life: fairies that are somewhat mischievous, but the true friends and helpers of Father Christmas (Santa Claus). They are the Christmas elves. Artists such as Hansen and Nystrm completed the picture of elves for us.


當聖誕在1800年中度時期再次成為一個受歡迎的節慶假期,斯堪的納維亞作者像Thile, Toplius和Rydberg用現代人生來描繪土地神的真實角色: 仙子是淘氣的,但他們是耶誕老人真正的朋友和幫手。他們就是耶誕精靈。Hansen和Nystrm等藝術家則為我們完成了精靈的畫作。




Rudolph is the most famous reindeer. He is the leader of the other 8, whose names are Blitzen, Comet, Cupid, Dancer, Dasher, Donder, Prancer, and Vixen.

The names of the 8 reindeer were published by Clement Clark Moore, an American poet and professor of theology, in his 1822 poem “A Visit From St. Nicholas.” Rudolph was first written about only in 1939 by Robert May, who included him in a story for the Montgomery Ward Christmas catalog. (Of course, the elves knew their names long, long before Moore and May did.)
The reindeer are cared for by one of the Christmas elves, Wunorse Openslae. He also designed Father Christmas’s sleigh and maintains it for top performance.

Rudolph魯道夫是最有名的麋鹿名。他是其他麋鹿- Blitzen閃電、Comet,彗星、Cupid邱比特、Dancer舞者、Dasher猛衝、Donder唐德、Prancer騰躍以及Vixen雌孤。
這八隻麋鹿的名字是由Clement Clark Moore,一個美國的詩人以及神學專家1822年的詩作”來自St. Nicolas的造訪”。 Rudolph只在1939年被Robert May,在Montgomery Ward (郵購公司)的聖誕目錄中第一次被提及(當然,我們知道精靈比Moore和May更早更早知道麋鹿的名字)。
麋鹿是由第一個聖誕精靈Wunorse Openslae所照顧。他也設計了第一個聖誕雪橇,並且長期維護他,以保持雪橇頂尖的表現。





At one stage it was thought that Father Christmas (Santa Claus) lives in the North Pole. In 1925 it was discovered that there are no reindeer in the North Pole. But there are lots in Lapland, Finland. So today we know that the reindeer live around the secret village of Father Christmas and the elves somewhere on the Korvatunturi mountain in the Savukoski county of Lapland, Finland, which is on the Finnish-Russian border.
Long ago, Father Christmas and the elves discovered the special formula of Magical Reindeer Dust which make them fly. This dust is sprinkled on each of the reindeer shortly before they leave on Christmas Eve. It gives them enough magic to fly right around the world. They can fly very fast: at about the speed of a Christmas light.





Christmas candy cane
The Christmas candy cane, shaped as a shepherds’ crook, represents the humble shepherds who were first to worship the new-born Christ.

Legend has it that the candy cane was invented in 1670 by a choirmaster at the Cologne Cathedral who handed out the bent sugar sticks among children to keep them quiet during the long Living Crèche ceremony.






Christmas gifts

Gifts were exchanged in the Roman ceremonies of Saturnalia, the festivities of solstice, the origin of our Christmas celebrations. We know the exchanging of gifts best from the three magi mentioned in the Bible. But as mentioned in the History of Christmas, during the previous centuries Christmas was a solemn affair. Religious puritans reminded Christians that the Magi gave gifts only to Jesus, not to His family or to each other. But since the celebration of Christ’s birth was incorporated with the solstice festivities outside the official church, and since Christmas really became widely popular during the last century, it has become a commercial phenomenon.
The first mention Christmas stockings being hung from or near a chimney were made only earlier this century by the illustrator, Thomas Nast, through his pictures and the writer, George Webster, in a story about a visit from Santa Claus. The story quickly caught on.
During World War II it was necessary to mail Christmas gifts early for the troops far way. Merchants joined in the effort to remind the public to shop early and the protracted shopping season was born.


聖誕襪被掛在靠近煙囪一說最早出現在本世紀的一個插畫家Thomas Nast,透過他的畫作以及作者- George Webster 在一個故事中提到聖誕老公公來訪。這個故事很快被傳開。





Father Christmas on Christmas cards

The first greeting card produced in the US was by German lithographer, Louis Prang, who emigrated to New York around 1850. Prang set up a workshop in Boston, Massachusetts in 1860 and began to produce the first color cards with scenes of winter tales for Christmas and New Year.
During the American Civil War, Abraham Lincoln requested a political cartoonist, Thomas Nast, to illustrate Santa Christmas (Santa Claus) with the Union troops to bolster their spirits. Nast was the first to introduce a Father Christmas in the now-traditional red suit and big leather belt.
Today, greeting cards is a multi-billion dollar industry supplying cards for just about any occasion.


在美國第一張賀卡是由德國的印刷工- Louis Prang所製造,他是在1850左右移民到紐約。Prang在1860年於美國麻薩諸塞州波士頓設置了一間工作室,並開始生產第一張聖誕和新年冬季故事圖的彩色卡片。
在美國內戰時期,亞伯拉罕·林肯要求一位政治漫畫家- Thomas Nast畫出聖誕老人隨著統一大軍來鞏固他們的精神。 Nast是第一個用現在的傳統紅色穿著以及大皮帶來介紹聖誕老人的人。




he first Christmas cards

Though wood engravers produced prints with religious themes in the European Middle Ages, the first commercial Christmas and New Year’s card was designed in London, England in 1843.

John Callcott Horsley (1817 – 1903), a British narrative painter and a Royal Academician, designed the first Christmas and New Year’s card at the suggestion and request of his friend Sir Henry Cole, who was the first director of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Horsley designed the first Christmas card in 1840, but it went on sale only in 1843, when one thousand cards were offered for 1s each.

The card was not received without controversy, for it showed a family raising their glasses to toast Christmas. Puritans immediately denounced it. The idea was a hit with others. Christmas card became very popular, and other artists quickly followed Horsley’s concept. A particularly popular card was designed by English artist William Egley in 1849.

The first Christmas cards were printed in 1843 in lithography by Jobbins of Warwick Court, Holborn, London, and hand-coloured by an artist named Mason. They were lithographed on stiff cardboard, with the greeting, “A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You.” It also states that is was “Published at Summerly’s Home Treasury Office, 12 Old Bond Street, London.


爵士- 第一位維多利亞與亞伯特博物館總監的建議和要求,設計了第一張聖誕和新年卡,Horsley在1840年設計了第一張聖誕卡,但在1843年,每款印制1000張時才開始銷售。

由於卡片上呈現家庭舉杯慶祝聖誕節,當時收到卡片時皆備受爭議。清教徒立刻譴責。而這個想法對其他人來說則是一個風潮。聖誕卡變得非常流行,其他藝術家也跟進Horsley的概念。當時最受歡迎的卡片是1849年英國藝術家William Egley設計的卡片。

第一張被印出的聖誕卡是在1843年,由Jobbins在倫敦以平版印刷印出,由藝術家Mason手繪顏色,印製在厚紙板上,並且寫上” 祝你有個快樂的聖誕以及新年”。同時也註明了其在倫敦的發行地址。