資料出處 : http://www.novareinna.com/festive/world.html
As one of the world’s oldest holidays, Halloween is still celebrated today in several countries around the globe, but it is in North America and Canada that it maintains its highest level of popularity. Every year, 65% of Americans decorate their homes and offices for Halloween…a percentage exceeded only by Christmas. Halloween is the holiday when the most candy is sold and is second only to Christmas in terms of total sales
In Austria, some people will leave bread, water and a lighted lamp on the table before retiring on Halloween night. The reason for this is because it was once believed such items would welcome the dead souls back to earth on a night which for the Austrians was considered to be brimming with strong cosmic energies.
The Belgians believe that it is unlucky for a black cat to cross once’s path and also unlucky if it should enter a home or travel on a ship. The custom in Belgium on Halloween night is to light candles in memory of dead relatives.
Modern Halloween celebrations in Canada began with the arrival of Scottish and Irish immigrants in the 1800s. Jack O’Lanterns are carved and the festivities include parties, trick-or-treating and the decorating of homes with pumpkins and corn stalks.
In Czechoslovakia, chairs are placed by the fireside on Halloween night. There is one chair for each living family member and one for each family member’s spirit.
At one time, English children made “punkies" out of large beetroots, upon which they carved a design of their choice. Then, they would carry their “punkies" through the streets while singing the “Punkie Night Song" as they knocked on doors and asked for money. In some rural areas, turnip lanterns were placed on gateposts to protect homes from the spirits who roamed on Halloween night. Another custom was to toss objects such as stones, vegetables and nuts into a bonfire to frighten away the spirits. These symbolic sacrifices were also employed as fortune-telling tools. If a pebble thrown into the flames at night was no longer visible in the morning, then it was believed that the person who tossed the pebble would not survive another year. If nuts tossed into the blaze by young lovers then exploded, it signified a quarrelsome marriage. For the most part however, the English ceased celebrating Halloween with the spread of Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation. Since followers of the new religion did not believe in Saints, they saw no reason to celebrate the Eve of All Saints’ Day. However, in recent years, the American “trick or treating" custom, together with the donning of costumes for going door-to-door, has become a relatively popular pasttime among English children at Halloween, although many of the adults (particularly the older generations) have little idea as to why they are being asked for sweets and are usually ill-prepared to accommodate their small and hopeful callers.
Unlike most nations of the world, Halloween is not celebrated by the French in order to honor the dead and departed ancestors. It is regarded as an “American" holiday in France and was virtually unknown in the country until around 1996.
In Germany, the people put away their knives on Halloween night. The reason for this is because they do not want to risk harm befalling the returning spirits.
In Ireland, believed to be the birthplace of Halloween, the tradition is still celebrated as much as it is in the United States. In rural areas, bonfires are lit as they were in the days of the Celts and children dress up in costumes to spend the evening “trick-or-treating" in their neighborhoods. After the visiting, most people attend parties with neighbors and friends. At these parties, many games are played, including “snap-apple," in which an apple on a string is tied to a doorframe or tree, and players attempt to take a bite out of the suspended apple. In addition to bobbing for apples, parents often arrange treasure hunts with sweets or pastries as the “treasure." The Irish also play a card game where cards are laid face-down on a table with sweets or coins beneath them. When a child selects a card, he or she receives whatever prize might be found there. A traditional food is eaten on Halloween called “barnbrack." This is a type of fruitcake which can be baked at home or store-bought. A muslin-wrapped treat is baked inside the cake which, so it is said, can foretell the future of the one who finds it. If the prize is a ring, then that person will soon be wed and a piece of straw means a prosperous year is forthcoming. Children are also known to play tricks upon their neighbors on Halloween night. One of which is known as “knock-a-dolly," where children knock on the doors of their neighbors but then run away before the door is opened.
Mexico, Latin America And Spain
Among Spanish-speaking nations, Halloween is known as “El Dia de los Muertos." It is a joyous and happy holiday…a time to remember friends and family who have died. Officially commemorated on November 2 (All Souls’ Day), the three-day celebration actually begins on the evening of October 31. Designed to honor the dead who are believed to return to their homes on Halloween, many families construct an altar in their home and decorate it with candy, flowers, photographs, fresh water and samples of the deceased’s favorite foods and drinks. Frequently, a basin and towel are left out in order that the spirit can wash prior to indulging in the feast. Candles and incense are burned to help the departed find his or her way home. Relatives also tidy the gravesites of deceased family members, including snipping weeds, making repairs and painting. The grave is then adorned with flowers, wreaths or paper streamers. Often, a live person is placed inside a coffine which is then paraded through the streets while vendors toss fruit, flowers and candies into the casket. On November 2, relatives gather at the gravesite to picnic and reminisce. Some of these gatherings may even include tequila and a mariachi band although American Halloween customs are gradually taking over this celebration. In Mexico during the Autumn, countless numbers of Monarch butterflies return to the shelter of Mexico’s oyamel fir trees. It was the belief of the Aztecs that these butterflies bore the spirits of dead ancestors.
在西班牙語系的國家，萬聖節被稱作"El Dia de los Muertos." 是一個喜悅歡樂的節日，ㄧ個懷念逝去的親人和朋友的時候。正式慶祝的日期是11月2日(萬靈節)，是一個在10月31日傍晚開始連續三天的節日，作為紀念相信當天會回家的先人，很多家庭會設祭壇並且用糖果、花、照片、鮮花以及先人喜愛的食物和水果樣品來裝飾。通常會將臉盆和毛巾放在門外以便亡靈在享用宴席時可漱洗。蠟燭和香會被點燃以便先人找到回家的路。親人們會把家中逝者的墓地打擾乾淨，包括除草、修繕和上漆。然後墓地會放置鮮花、花圈或者相思帶裝飾。常常，ㄧ個活人會躺在棺材裡被抬著遊街，然後攤販會將水果、花以蠟燭丟進棺材裡。在11月2號，家人會齊聚在墓地野餐並悼念。這些聚餐甚至會有龍舌蘭酒或者街頭樂隊，即使美式萬聖節習俗慢慢取代這個儀式。在墨西哥秋天，數不清的帝王蝴蝶會回墨西哥的冷杉林避冬。阿茲提克人相信這些蝴蝶負載著死去先人的靈魂。
In Sweden, Halloween is known as “Alla Helgons Dag" and is celebrated from October 31 until November 6. As with many other holidays, “Alla Helgons Dag" has an eve which is either celebrated or becomes a shortened working day. The Friday prior to All Saint’s Day is a short day for universities while school-age children are given a day of vacation.
在瑞典，萬聖節稱為”Alla Helgons Dag”，並且是從10月31號ㄧ直到11月6號的慶典。和很多其他節日ㄧ樣，”Alla Helgons Dag”的節日不是從晚上開始慶祝，就是當天提早下班。萬聖節之前的星期五大學生都會提早下課，而學生們則是會給ㄧ天假。